“commando” procedure involves the resection of the primary tumor, a part of the mandible and surrounding cervical lymph nodes. This procedure is commonly used for cancers affecting the tongue, floor of the mouth, larynx, pharynx, maxilla, mandible and palate. This term is coined ‘commando procedure’ as it’s a surgical attack on the diseased tissue. The head and neck surgery involves resection of the mandible with the floor of the mouth and the dissection of the entire lymphatic system of the neck along with the sternoclidomastoid muscle and internal jugular vein.
The procedure requires substantial amount of surgical reconstruction of the facial structures and is used mainly for cancers affecting the head and neck. ‘Commando Operation’ is a difficult surgery and mandates the need for an experienced medical team to manage the pre operative and post operative care. Turkey, Mexico, Jordan, India and South Korea are some of the countries where these procedures are available at relatively lower cost.
When do you need a Commando procedure?
The commando procedure is done for cancers affecting the oropharyngeal region.
Preparing for Head and Neck Surgery: Commando Procedure
It is essential for any patient undergoing a composite resection of the head and neck to follow the below mentioned requirements,
Understanding the commando procedure:
Common post operative complications include
Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in the cells of the cervix — the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina.
Various strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection, play a role in causing most cervical cancer.
When exposed to HPV, a woman's immune system typically prevents the virus from doing harm. In a small group of women, however, the virus survives for years, contributing to the process that causes some cells on the surface of the cervix to become cancer cells.
You can reduce your risk of developing cervical cancer by having screening tests and receiving a vaccine that protects against HPV infection.
Early-stage cervical cancer generally produces no signs or symptoms.
Signs and symptoms of more-advanced cervical cancer include:
Cervical cancer begins when healthy cells acquire a genetic change (mutation) that causes them to turn into abnormal cells.
Healthy cells grow and multiply at a set rate, eventually dying at a set time. Cancer cells grow and multiply out of control, and they don't die. The accumulating abnormal cells form a mass (tumor). Cancer cells invade nearby tissues and can break off from a tumor to spread (metastasize) elsewhere in the body.
It isn't clear what causes cervical cancer, but it's certain that HPV plays a role. HPV is very common, and most women with the virus never develop cervical cancer. This means other factors — such as your environment or your lifestyle choices — also determine whether you'll develop cervical cancer.
Types of cervical cancer
The type of cervical cancer that you have helps determine your prognosis and treatment. The main types of cervical cancer are:
Risk factors for cervical cancer include:
To reduce your risk of cervical cancer:
The Whipple Procedure, or pancreaticoduodenectomy, is the most commonly performed surgery to remove tumors in the pancreas. In a standard Whipple procedure, the surgeon removes the head of the pancreas, the gallbladder, part of the duodenum which is the uppermost portion of the small intestine, a small portion of the stomach called the pylorus, and the lymph nodes near the head of the pancreas. The surgeon then reconnects the remaining pancreas and digestive organs so that pancreatic digestive enzymes, bile, and stomach contents will flow into the small intestine during digestion. In another type of Whipple procedure known as pylorus preserving Whipple, the bottom portion of the stomach, or pylorus, is not removed. In both cases, the surgery usually lasts between 5-8 hours.
After a Whipple procedure, the most common complication is delayed gastric emptying, a condition in which the stomach takes too long to empty its contents. Usually, after 7-10 days the stomach begins to work properly. If delayed gastric emptying persists, supplemental feedings by a feeding tube may be started. The condition usually lasts for another 7-10 days, but could last as long as a few weeks. The most serious potential complication is abdominal infection due to leakage where the pancreas has been connected to the intestine. This occurs in approximately 10% of patients and is usually managed by a combination of draining tubes, antibiotics, and supplemental tube feedings. Patients who have undergone the Whipple procedure may experience long-term effects including digestive difficulties.